Friday, February 11, 2011

Health Effects of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

Part I. Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution due to motor vehicles (page 13-62), Motor Vehicle Air Pollution - Public Health Impact and Control Measures (250 pages pdf, World Health Organization, 1992)

Key Quotes:

“Usually, over 90% of the CO in city centers comes from vehicles and it is common to find 50 to 60% of the hydrocarbons (HC) and NO, coming from this source”

“Short exposure(10-15 minutes) to concentration of NO2 exceeding 1300 ug/m3 (0.7 ppm) caused functional changes in healthy subjects particularly an increased airway resistance”

“effects showed increases of respiratory illness in children of less than 12 years of age, associated with long-term exposure to high concentrations of NQ (gas stoves) compared to children exposed to low concentrations of this pollutant: a difference in exposure of 30 ug/m3 resulting in an increase of about2 0% in the odds of respiratory illness”

“Most of the studies on the health effects of have focused on short-term( 1-2 hour) exposure and have indicated a number of acute effects of 03 and other photochemical oxidants .. The results suggest a significant association between chronic symptoms and total oxidants above2 00 ug/m3 (0.10 ppm).

“Four types of health effects are reported to be associated with CO exposure: neurobehavioral effects, cardiovascular effects, fibrinolysis effects, and perinatal effects”

“An estimated 80-90% of lead in ambient air derives from the combustion of leaded petrol…. Exposure of children to lower concentrations of lead may produce neurophysiological disorders, including impairment of learning ability, behavior, intelligence and fine motor coordination”
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