Public health benefi ts of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport
Additional discussion here:
More Foot Power, Less Car Pollution Best for Health (US News)
"health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings—London, UK, and Delhi, India."
"developed separate models that linked transport scenarios with physical activity, air pollution, and risk of road traffic injury."
"Lower-emission motor vehicles would reduce the health burden from urban outdoor air pollution, but a reduction in the distance travelled by motor vehicles could have a greater effect."
"Since traffic-related air pollution is unevenly distributed within cities, reduction in the amount of traffic is likely to have large health benefits in some areas....as a result of the London congestion charge, health benefits were estimated to be the largest in the most deprived areas of London."
"Policy makers should divert investment from roads for motorists towards provision of infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists"
"Properly enforced reductions in speed limits or zones can reduce injuries."
"An increase in the safety, convenience, and comfort of walking and cycling, and a reduction in the attractiveness of private motor vehicle use (speed, convenience, and cost) are essential to achieve the modal shifts envisaged here."