Tuesday, August 2, 2016

How Does Particulate Pollution Affect the Calcification of Arteries?

English: Coronary circulation, with coronary a...
English: Coronary circulation, with coronary arteries labeled in red text and other landmarks in blue text. This vector graphics image was originally created with Adobe Illustrator, and modified with Inkscape. 32px|alt=W3C|link=http://validator.w3.org/✓ The source code of this SVG is valid. Category:Valid SVG (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study (Abstract, 1 page pdf, Joel D Kaufman, Sara D Adar, R Graham Barr, Matthew Budoff, Gregory L Burke, Cynthia L Curl, Martha L Daviglus, Ana V Diez Roux, Amanda J Gassett, David R Jacobs Jr, Prof Richard Kronmal, Timothy V Larson, Ana Navas-Acien, Casey Olives, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, David S Siscovick, James H Stein, Adam A Szpiro, Karol E Watson, The Lancet, May 24, 2016

Also discussed here: Decade-long study shows how air pollution is killing you (ZME Science, May 26, 2016)

Today we review research conducted over a decade on the biological impacts of traffic-related air pollution (PM2.5 and NOx) on the arteries which in turn results in a higher risk of heart attack.. Results indicate coronary calcium increased with increases in PM2.5 by 4.1 Agaston units/yr and in NOx by 4.8 Agaston units/yr. The authors suggest that increases in traffic related pollution especially in urban areas world-wide can be associated with increased cardiovascular diseases.  

Key Quotes:

“The study provides important new information on how pollution affects the main biological process that leads to heart disease,”

“The evidence supports worldwide efforts to reduce exposures to ambient air pollutants..This was the most in-depth study of air pollution exposures ever applied to a large study group specifically designed to examine influences on cardiovascular health,”

 “Increased concentrations of PM2·5 and traffic-related air pollution within metropolitan areas, in ranges commonly encountered worldwide, are associated with progression in coronary calcification, consistent with acceleration of atherosclerosis.”

“for every 5 µg/m3 higher concentration of PM2.5 or 35 parts per billion higher concentration of oxides of nitrogen, participants had a 4 Agatston units/year faster rate of progression of coronary artery calcium scores.”

“in this population, coronary calcium increased on average by 24 Agatston units per year (SD 58), and intima-media thickness by 12 μm per year (10), before adjusting for risk factors or air pollutant exposures,”

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