100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States (Abstract, Mark Z. Jacobson, Mark A. Delucchi, Guillaume Bazouin, Zack A. F. Bauer, Christa C. Heavey, Emma Fisher, Sean B. Morris, Diniana J.Y.Piekutowski, Taylor A. Vencill and Tim W.Yeskoo, Energy and Environmental Science, May 27, 2015
“This study presents roadmaps for each of the 50 United States to convert their all-purpose energy systems (for electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) to ones powered entirely by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). The plans contemplate 80–85% of existing energy replaced by 2030 and 100% replaced by 2050.”
“Year 2050 end-use U.S. all-purpose load would be met with ∼30.9% onshore wind, ∼19.1% offshore wind, ∼30.7% utility-scale photovoltaics (PV), ∼7.2% rooftop PV, ∼7.3% concentrated solar power (CSP) with storage, ∼1.25% geothermal power, ∼0.37% wave power, ∼0.14% tidal power, and ∼3.01% hydroelectric power.”
“Converting would further eliminate ∼$3.3 (1.9–7.1) tril. per year in 2050 global warming costs to the world due to U.S. emissions.”
“These plans will result in each person in the U.S. in 2050 saving ∼$260 (190–320) per year in energy costs ($2013 dollars) and U.S. health and global climate costs per person decreasing by ∼$1500 (210–6000) per year and ∼$8300 (4700–17600) per year, respectively.”
“Switching from liquid fuels to renewable electricity would also virtually eliminate air pollution, thus avoiding health costs to the tune of $600 billion a year by 2050.”
“ moving everything to carbon-free electricity would avoid about $3.3 trillion a year in global climate change costs of US emissions by 2050.